What is a pressure relief valve and what is the purpose of the pressure relief valve

What is a pressure relief valve and what is the purpose of the pressure relief valve

A pressure relief valve is a device that is used to protect piping and other equipment from the excessive pressure. The major function of safety and relief valves is to provide protection against excessive pressure. The pressure relief valve will limit the air or fluid pressure or vacuum in a system. These valves are capable to protect our system from over and under pressurization. So these valves would only allow a specified amount of fluid so that it. A compressed spring is used to do the seating of this valve, and this would exert a force on the disc of the valve, pressing it against the valve seat. So if the fluid exerts more force on the valve disc, more than the spring force, then the valve will automatically open to release the excess pressure.

What are the parts of the pressure relief valve

How does the pressure relief valve work

There is a safe pressure for each system, so if the pressure is more than the safe pressure it could cause damages to the system. So, in this case, a relief valve is used which will reduce the pressure. In case of excessive pressure, the relief valve will reduce the pressure by opening the valve so that the fluid is diverted.

So the safety valve is capable to protect our system from excessive pressure. If the pressure reaches the normal level then the relief valve will close and the system operation will continue and if this situation arises again then the safety valves are ready to do what is required. These valves are also called vacuum relief valves, blow off valves safety valves, pressure regulating valves…

What are the common types of the pressure relief valve

Pressure relief valves are normally closed valves and it would only operate when the system pressure approaches the maximum operating pressure. The operation of pressure relief valves are classified into two types they are directly operated and balancing piston (compound or pilot operated) the direct-operated relief valves use system pressure to generate force to compress the spring, and this would open the valve and allows fluids to reach the reservoir. The compound relief valve has a small direct operated relief valve in its pilot section. The pilot section indirectly establishes maximum system pressure by controlling the pressure in the balancing piston section of the valve. The balancing piston section of the compound relief valve uses a metering orifice and a balancing spring to create pressure and force differences. These differences will correctly position the piston to produce the desired maximum system operating pressure.

What is a balanced safety relief valve

These valves are direct spring-loaded pressure relief valve and the reduction of back pressure is done with the help of bellows or other things. It can be used for many services like gas, vapor, steam, air. These valves are used in corrosive service. These valves are classified into two types they are balanced bellows and balanced bellows with auxiliary balancing piston. The balanced bellows are similar to the conventional relief valve and the only difference is the bellows. In the case of the second one, these valves would seal the body and fluid stream from the bonnet and working parts

What is a pilot operated pressure relief valve

In this type of valve, the main valve is combined with a self-actuated auxiliary pressure relief valve. Auxiliary pressure relief valve controls the main valve, the piston top part has a larger area than in the bottom for the pilot-operated valve, due to this the piston is held tightly against the main valve nozzle. So when the operating pressure increases, the seating force increases to and the valve would become tighter. These valves are mainly used in the place where large relief areas or high set pressures are needed. They are also used in large low-pressure tanks and also used where very short blow-down is needed.

What are the advantages of pilot operated valves

  • Backpressure won’t affect the relieving pressure
  • It can be operated at 98% of set pressure
  • They are less susceptible to chatter

What are the main functions of pressure regulating or pressure relief valve

  • These valves are capable to protect the system from pressure damage
  • Sequence motion
  • Limit pressure in selected sections of the circuit
  • Removes excess fluid safely
  • Prevent the loss of material
  • Protect equipment piping and people

What is the difference between the pressure safety valve and pressure relief valve

The relief valve can be described as the relief device on a filled vessel and this valve opening will be proportional to the increase in vessel pressure. Due to this, the valve opening is not quick, so if the pressure is increased gradually then the valve will open gradually. The safety valve can be described as a relief device on a compressible filled vessel. The valve opening is very quickly when compared to the relief valve, so if the pressure exceeds the set pressure then the valve will open fully. A relief valve will prevent the overpressure, to complete its operation it may need an operator when a control signal is given. In case of a safety valve, it doesn’t need the assistance of an operator.

The relief valve opening is proportional to the increase in fluid pressure, while in case of safety valves the valve will fully open if the set pressure is reached.

How to choose the material for the construction of pressure relief valves

The selected material must be compatible with the process fluid. The selected material must be capable to withstand the pressure and temperature of the system fluid. The material must be resistive to chemicals, these chemicals will be from the process fluids and the local environment.

What are the operational characteristics of the pressure relief valve

Backpressure – it is the static pressure that is in the outlet of the device and it is due to the pressure in discharge system

Flutter – it is the abnormal movement of the moving parts of the pressure relief valve

Closing pressure – it is the pressure at which the valve disc makes contact with the seat

Chatter – it is the rapid opening and closing of pressure relief valve

What are the factors that must be considered while selecting a pressure relief valve

The relief capacity must be sufficient to vent vapor at a rate in which it is generated. The driving source must be considered that creates overpressure, mostly it could be the external and internal heat load. The vapor relief devices must be selected considering the air equivalent basis.

What are the details required for selecting and sizing a pressure relief valve

In the case of sizing the pressure relief valve the first step is to determine the set pressure, back pressure, allowable overpressure, and relieving capacity. The set and allowable overpressure can be determined by reference to the operating pressure of the system and the code under which the system is built and inspected.

Fluid properties

Fluid and state, Molecular weight, Viscosity, specific gravity, the ratio of specific heats, and compressibility factors.

Operating conditions

Operating pressure and temperature, Maximum allowable working pressure

Relieving conditions Set pressure, allowable overpressure, built-up backpressure, relieving temperature, superimposed backpressure, required relieving capacity

What are the causes of overpressure

  • Blocked outlet
  • External fire
  • Automatic control failure
  • Tube rupture
  • Reflux failure
  • Abnormal heat or vapor input
  • Process changes chemical reactions
  • Thermal expansion of blocked in fluid

What are the advantages of pressure relief valve

  • These valves are reliable
  • It can be used for many services
  • It could protect the equipment from overpressure

To get more info about control valve check the following link

News Reporter
post-graduate in Electronics & communication