Fire & Gas

Testing Procedure of Flame Detector

What is a Flame Detector?

Testin g Procedure of Flame Detector 1

A flame detector is a specific sensor or device intended to detect the presence of an open flame or fire in a particular region. 

A flame detector plays a significant role and is employed in various industrial applications to furnish immediate information on the spread of fires and warning of safety measures in the occurrence of fires for potentially saving lives and property. 

This Flame Detector works by sensing the presence of specific wavelengths of light or radiation produced by a flame. 

These Flame Detectors are frequently integrated into fire alarm systems and fire suppression systems to initiate safety measures automatically when a flame is detected.

List out the common types of flame detectors used?

Here are a few common types of flame detectors:

  1. Ultraviolet (UV) Flame Detectors: 
  • These detectors are very sensitive to the ultraviolet light spectrum emitted by flames.
  • UV flame detectors are equipped with a UV-sensitive sensor, typically a photodiode or a photomultiplier tube, designed to detect UV radiation in a specific wavelength range.
  • This sensor is typically covered with a UV-transmitting window or filter to isolate the desired UV wavelengths.
  • Ultraviolet detectors function by detecting an ultraviolet light emitted by a flame. 
  • These Ultraviolet flame detectors detect this radiation & respond to this specific wavelength to activate an alarm to initiate safety measuring systems.
  1. Infrared (IR) Flame Detectors: 
  • Infrared (IR) Flame Detectors sense the infrared radiation emitted by flames.
  • These detectors are much more effective in detecting flames that emit minimum UV radiation or don’t emit any UV radiation produced by hydrocarbon fires.
  • IR flame detectors are equipped with an infrared-sensitive sensor, which is typically a photodiode or a thermopile. This sensor is designed to detect infrared radiation within a specific wavelength range associated with the emission spectrum of flames.
  • They can differentiate between the Infrared radiation from a fire and other heat sources that help minimize false alarms.
  1. Multispectral Flame Detectors: 
  • These detectors use multiple sensors, often combining UV and IR technology, to increase reliability and reduce the false alarm rate. 
  • Multispectral flame detectors incorporate both UV and IR sensors within the same device. The UV sensor is sensitive to the UV radiation emitted by open flames, while the IR sensors are sensitive to the infrared radiation emitted by flames. This dual-sensor approach allows the detector to capture a wider range of flame characteristics, making it effective at detecting different types of flames, such as hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon flames.
  • They can distinguish between real flames and other sources of UV and IR radiation, such as sunlight or hot surfaces.
  1. Flame Ionization Detectors FID: 
  • These Flame Ionization Detectors are often used in industrial settings to detect the presence of flames or specific combustible gases used for combustion. 
  • These detectors work by measuring changes in ionization caused by the flame.
  • They work by ionizing the combustion products in the presence of a flame, generating a current that can be detected and used to trigger alarms.
  1. Flame Recognition Algorithms: 

Some modern flame detectors utilize advanced image processing and pattern recognition algorithms to identify flames based on visual patterns, making them more versatile and capable of detecting different types of flames.

  1. Visual Flame Detectors: 
  • Visual flame detectors use cameras or imaging technology to detect flames visually. 
  • They can analyze flame patterns and characteristics to determine if a fire is present.
  1. Dual-Spectrum Flame Detectors: 

These detectors combine UV and IR sensors to improve flame detection accuracy and reduce false alarms.

Testing Procedure of Flame Detector

Before starting the testing Procedure of Flame Detector

  1. Ensure that the testing procedure adheres to safety protocols and regulations
  2. Inform all sections about testing of flame detectors and get approval from respective departments.
  3. Review the manufacturer’s guidelines and documentation for the specific flame detector being tested.
  4. Gather the necessary tools and equipment, including a test flame source, test lamps, and appropriate safety gear.
  5. Force the respective logics or interlocks such as activation of fire suppression systems.     

Start of Testing Procedure

  1. 1. Visually inspect the flame detector and its surroundings for any signs of damage, dirt, or obstructions that might affect its performance.
  2. Check the LED status of the Flame Detector, and ensure that the lamp of the Flame Detector is GREEN.
Testing Procedur e of Flame Detector 2
  1. Check the DC Supply of the Flame Detector between the +ve and –ve terminals of the Flame Detector such that the supply voltage must be 24VDC.
  2. To test the Flame Detector take an Ultraviolet (UV) / Infrared (IR) Testing Torch.
  3. Clean the display of the detector by using smooth cotton cloth or cotton waste prior to applying Ultraviolet (UV) / Infrared (IR) rays to the Flame Detector.
  4. Ensure that the display of the detector must be proper to detect Ultraviolet (UV) / Infrared (IR) rays to avoid the appearance of a faulty LED indication.
  5. Use the Ultraviolet (UV) / Infrared (IR) torch from the Flame detector to apply the Ultraviolet (UV) / Infrared (IR) rays.
  6. Adjust the torch Resolution to check the detector from short and long distances.
  7. An alarm signal appears after 3 Seconds and the hooter gets triggered.
  8. LED indication of Flame detector turns steady RED.
  9. Silence the hooter by acknowledging the alarm signal. Observe the flame detector’s response to the test flame source. Check for the following:
  • Detection time: Record how quickly the flame detector recognizes the test flame.
  • Alarm indication: Ensure the detector triggers an alarm, activates warning lights, or initiates other predetermined actions when a flame-like signal is detected.
  • False alarms: Confirm that the flame detector does not produce false alarms in response to non-flame sources.
Testing Procedure of Flame Detector 3
  1. Record the alarm tag and descriptions from the HMI or workstation in such a way that alarm details must match the tag number and installed location of the flame detector.
  2. Ensure the activation status of the flame detector from the respective graphics page and everyone must have the ability to visualize the LED color of the respective flame detector on that graphics page.
  3. Isolate the Ultraviolet (UV) / Infrared (IR) torch.
  4. Reset the Flame Detector alarm signal when the RED LED Indication gets turned off.
  5. Now ensure that the Flame Detector is operating well with an indication of a blinking GREEN LED lamp.
  6. Document the results of the test, including detection time, alarm indications, and any false alarms.
  7. Note the date, time, and details of the test. Maintain comprehensive records of all testing activities, including test results, any adjustments or maintenance performed, and the date of the test.
  8. Conduct the same testing procedure for the rest  of the available flame detectors
  9. Normalize the forced interlocks or logics.
  10. Close the work permit.
  11. Report the testing results and any issues identified to the appropriate personnel responsible for fire safety and maintenance.

Applications of Flame detectors

Flame detectors are usually used in various applications where immediate sensing of the occurrence of fire can save lives and prevent unfortunate accidents like.

  1. Fire protection systems, 
  2. Power plants 
  3. Petro-chemical facilities 
  4. Industrial facilities, 
  5. Oil and Gas refineries, 
  6. Chemical processing plants.

Frequently asked questions

What is the range of the Flame detector?

The operating range of the Flame detector is moderate up to 200 feet from the flame source for both indoors and outdoors.

What is the Flame Resistance Test?

Flame Resistance Tests also known as fire resistance tests are designed to assess the performance of elements of construction for their load-bearing or fire-separating properties.

Where do we find the application of Flame Detectors?

  1. Flame Detectors are used in Industrial and Commercial applications such as Oil & Gas Pipelines,
  2. Turbine Enclosures, 
  3. Off-Shore Platforms, 
  4. Automotive Manufacturing Facilities, 
  5. Aircraft Hangers,
  6. Munitions Plants, 
  7. Nuclear Facilities.

What is the Temperature of Fire? 

  • The temperature of White Flames is higher than Orange Flame
  • The temperature of Orange Flames is 1100°C to 1200°C.
  • The temperature of White Flames is about 1300°C to  1500°C
  • The temperature of Blue Flames is about  2500°C to 3000°C

How do you reset a flame detector? 

The flame detector can be reset by the controller or by cycling the detector power off and on.

What are the relay outputs of the Flame detector? 

Alarm Relay (SPDT), & Latched Alarm.

What are the 3 main types of fire testing?

Fire tests are carried out on active fire protection, & passive fire protection

Full-scale, Small-Scale, and Bench-Scale tests are three main types of fire testing.

Sundareswaran Iyalunaidu

With over 24 years of dedicated experience, I am a seasoned professional specializing in the commissioning, maintenance, and installation of Electrical, Instrumentation and Control systems. My expertise extends across a spectrum of industries, including Power stations, Oil and Gas, Aluminium, Utilities, Steel and Continuous process industries. Tweet me @sundareshinfohe

Related Articles

Back to top button