A three-phase generator means instead of a single coil rotating through a magnetic field, three coils rotates. Single phase is what used in houses, generally, 240 V, 50Hz supply, because loads used in houses are single phase.
In industries, three-phase motors are as they are better efficient, power factor and self-starting, hence three-phase generation evolved.
Advantages of three-phase over single phase:
The generation process:
- For similar physical size, three phase generates more power
- Three phase can supply power to both single and three phase power
- Requires less maintains
- The three-phase supplies three times power than the single phase.
Three phase has two types of connections star and delta connections. Each its own advantages. The star point can be used as neutral.
The transmission process:
- The power distribution can happen over a long distance. It can happen with higher voltage and lower current. That means:
- Less heat and less loss
- Thinner cables can be used for lower voltage, which means the cost-efficient.
- The neutral point is available when connected in a star connection
- Load distribution and phase balancing is possible
The 3-phase load:
- The three-phase motor is more efficient
- Three phase motor has higher starting torque
- Has much higher starting torque
- Do not need starting circuitry
- Can be connected in star-delta
- For same physical size both single and three phase motor, three phase will be more powerful.
- Three phase motors are easier and cheaper to manufacture
- Need, less maintenance because of less moving parts in the three-phase motor
- Three phase motor does not use centrifugal switches, less arching, less of a fire hazard.
Generally, three phase is cheaper, easy to manufacture, cost-efficient and easy to install.