HART ( Highway Addressable Remote Transducer) Communication Protocol

What is HART protocol? HART (Highway Addressable Remote Transducer) Protocol is the global standard for sending and receiving digital information across analog wires between smart devices and control or monitoring system. HART is owned by independent non-profit  HART communication foundation. HART is now a global standard because digital information from HART devices can simultaneously communicated with the …

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Proximity detection using capacitance & inductive sensors

Introduction There are two basic ways to detect object presence; contact and proximity. Contact implies that there is mechanical contact and a resulting force between the sensor and the object. Proximity indicates that the object is near, but contact is not required.In this session we are gonna discuss about  Proximity detection using capacitance & inductive sensors …

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Instrumentation interview questions

What is Process control? A process control is continuous changing of a process variable to desire variable according to the measured feedback variable from the process. A Process control system always aim to achieve a process variable at the desired quantity, so that the system is said to be in controlled What is transmitter? A transmitter is …

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Introduction to SCADA

What is SCADA? SCADA stands for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. SCADA is a control system which is used in industrial process and infrastructural process. The SCADA is not a specific technology, but a type of application, it is a pure software package that is positioned on top of hardware to which it is interfaced, …

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Basics of Pneumatic instruments

Introduction A pneumatic system is a system that uses compressed air to transmit and control energy. Pneumatic systems are used in controlling train doors, automatic production lines, mechanical clamps, etc   What are pneumatic systems used for? The pneumatic systems used in the industry are usually driven by compressed air or compressed inert gases. A …

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Introduction to PLC hardware- part 2

Introduction Earlier we discussed about the basics of PLC hardware .This is the continuation of that .In this session we are focussing on inputs and ouput modules of PLC hardware You can check the part 1 here https://automationforum.co/2018/04/introduction-plc-hardware.html Inputs In smaller PLCs, the inputs are usually integrated and specified when purchasing the PLC. For larger …

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RS-232 C interface and modems

RS-232 C is a standard connection between a modem and the devices, electrical specifications, data exchange method, and timing. They perform different functions at the sending and receiving ends. At the sending end, a serial digital signal is used to modulate an analog signal (using, for example, frequency modulation), which is sent out on the communication circuit; on …

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Introduction to PLC hardware part 1

INTRODUCTION Many PLC configurations are available, even from a single vendor. But, in each of these there are common components and concepts. The most essential PLC hardware components are: Components 1.Power Supply – This can be built into the PLC or be an external unit. Common voltage levels required by the PLC (with and without the …

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Basics of Hydrostatic level measurement

What is meant by hydrostatics? Hydrostatic pressure sensors are used for the measurement of level or filling height of a liquid. Hydrostatic pressure measurement is suited for level measurement due to the hydrostatic effect of non flowing fluids. This physical principle describes the effect of the weight force of a stationary, meaning non-flowing, liquid on …

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