Electrical wiring and its types

What is electrical wiring

Electrical wiring can be described as an insulated conductor which is used to carry the current and associated device. Electrical wiring is used to provide power to a building, transfer of electric current from the substation to the customers is done by the distribution network and the electrical power will be taken from the mainboard to different types of load and this is done by the help of electrical wiring. Electrical wiring must be carefully installed and maintained in a way that it could provide safety to persons and property. Poorly installed wiring will be very dangerous to the owner and to his personal property. Domestic electric appliances like light fans washing machines, water pumps etc are connected to the supply through insulated wires.

What is common electrical conductor used for wiring

The conductor material used will be a solid and standard conductor, insulation, size and the number of cores specifies the electric wire. The conductors are usually of either copper or aluminum and the selection of wire is depended upon the requirements like current and voltage ratings the current carrying capacity depends on the total area of the wire

What are the factors to be considered while selecting any system of wiring

  • Type of wire and used material
  • Nature of load
  • Safety of the system
  • Dampness
  • Corrosive fumes
  • Fire hazards or other special conditions
  • Construction of building

The selected wiring should conform the standard specifications so that it should be durable thus it should not be affected by weather conditions and the wiring must provide safety against leakage, shock and fire hazards for the operating personnel. The accessibility is an important factor the switches and plug points provided must be easily accessible and there must be provision for further extension of wiring system if necessary and maintenance cost should be minimum and the wiring must be able to withstand any mechanical damage.

Types of wiring according to use – domestic, commercial, and industrial wiring

Types of wiring

Cleat wiring

In this type wood or plastic cleats are fixed to walls or ceilings at regular intervals, PVC insulated cables are taken through the holes of each cleat. This system of wiring comprises of VIR or PVC insulated wires. The cleat wiring system is temporary wiring system so this type of wiring is not suitable for domestic premises this is a conventional method of wiring, nowadays these type of wiring are not used this system use insulated cables sub protected in porcelain cleats. The wooden casing is used for the wiring and they are fixed to the walls or ceiling with screws after placing the cables inside the grooves of casing a wooden cap is used to cover the cables, this type of wiring has high-risk fire could cause in case of short circuit

Advantages of cleat wiring

  • Simple and cheap mostly suitable for temporary use
  • Fault can be easily detected because the cables and wiring of the cleat system is in the open air
  • Installation is simple
  • Customization and alteration can be easily done the inspection is easy and simple

Disadvantages of cleat wiring

  • It won’t last long
  • Risk of fire and electric shock is always present
  • Cannot be used for sensitive places

Casing and capping wiring

This type of wiring system is suitable for low voltage installations and the materials used are insulated cables and vulcanized rubber and the cables are carried through the wooden casing enclosure and the casing is made up of a strip of wood with parallel grooves cut lengthwise in order to accommodate VIR cables and the grooves can separate opposite polarity

Advantages of casing and capping wiring

  • It is strong and has a long life
  • Customization can be easily done
  • It is safe from oil, steam, smoke, and rain
  • There is no risk of electric shock due to the covered wires and cables in the casing

Disadvantages of casing and capping wiring system

  • Risk of fire is present in this type
  • Maintenance is high

Batten wiring

The wires are run on the teak wooden battens and it is fixed on the walls or ceiling by means of screws and wooden plugs, these type of cables are not much affected by the chemicals, water, and steam, this method of wiring is very cheap and there is only less chance for leakage current, this is not suitable for outdoor wiring it has high risk for fire and is only suitable for below 250V

Conduit wiring

A conduit can be defined as a tube or channel tubular conduit are most commonly used for electrical installations. When cables are drawn through the conduit and terminated at the outlet or switch points and this type of wiring is called conduit wiring conduit wiring can be surface conduit wiring of concealed conduit wiring surface conduit wirings are used in industries to connect the heavy motors. Concealed wiring is the most common method of wiring

Advantages of conduit wiring

  • Conduits can protect wire against mechanical injury and shock
  • Protection against chemical
  • Waterproof
  • Conductors are safely ensured from moisture
  • Long life

Metal sheathed wiring or lead sheathed wiring

The metal sheath is provided over the insulated conductor in order to protect it from mechanical injuries, dampness, and atmospheric action. Cables are run on wooden batten and are fixed with the help of thinned link clips.


post-graduate in Electronics & communication.

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