Industrial Automation

What is RJ45 Cable & How to make RJ45 Cable

RJ 45 Cable

LAN Cable

What is RJ45 Cable?

         RJ 45 cable is used for connect computer to Local Area Network (LAN) for sharing the information between the computers, communicating with printers, accessing of internet. This cable is used to transmit the information over a particular length. The cable run needs a connection termination, which calls for a jack to plug through an RJ45 port. RJ45 cables have a tiny plastic plug on either end, which is put into an Ethernet device’s RJ45 port.    

RJ45 Cable

What does RJ45 Stands for?

         The term RJ45 stands for Registered Jack.”45″ is the interface standard’s number.

         A standardized telecommunication network interface for connecting voice and data equipment to a service provided by a local exchange carrier or long-distance carrier These are used in telephone and data jack wiring registered with Federal Communications Commission. RJ-45 is an 8-position, 8-conductor connector used in 10BaseT and 100BaseT Ethernet wiring, while RJ-11 is a 6-position, 4-conductor jack used in telephone cable.

Twisted Pair of Cable

Twisted Pair of Cable

         Two wires of a single circuit are twisted together in this style of wiring in order to increase electromagnetic compatibility.

RJ 45 Connector

         In Ethernet-based local area networks, an 8-position, 8-contact (8P8C) modular plug and jack known as an RJ45 connector is utilised (LAN). Eight pins are located on the port of an RJ45 cable plug, which is typically constructed of plastic. Four pins are used data transmission and reception. The rest four pins are for different technologies or to power networking

RJ45 Connector

RJ-45 connectors Types

         The RJ-45 was modified to fulfil the requirement for a different size connector brought about by the major technological advancements. RJ-45 connectors come in two sizes nowadays, one for Cat 5 cable and the other for Cat 6 cable. The user must ensure that they have the appropriate one for their task. Comparing them side by side is the most straightforward approach to tell them difference. Compared to the Cat 5 connector, the Cat 6 connector is bigger.

RJ 45 Cable Wiring Standard.

         RJ-45 conductor data cable has 4 pairs of wires with a solid wire and a strip of the same color. Orange, green, blue, and brown wire pairs.    10BaseT/100BaseT Ethernet uses orange and green. The other two colors can create a second Ethernet or phone line (blue and brown). RJ-45 wiring uses T-568A/B.

Wiring Standard

              T568-A                                           T568-B

     The two wiring standards are used to create a cross-over or a straight-through cable.

Straight Through Cable 

Straight through cable is built using either T568 A or 568 B on both ends of cable.

     These type cable is used when connecting data terminating equipment (DTE) to Data Communicating Equipment (DCE)such as computers and routers to modem (gateways) or hubs (Ethernet Switches)

Straight Through Cable

Cross-over Cable

Cross-over cable is designed by connecting T-568 A on one end and T-568 B on other end of cable.These type cable is used when connecting DTE to DTE or DCE to DCE equipment.

As name

DTE – terminates the signals

DCE – Communicates the signal doesn’t terminate

Crossover Cable

RJ45 Color-Code Standards

         The plugs on RJ45 cables have eight conductors with eight pins that are color-coded. Four pairs of eight wires, one for each positive and negative polarity, are utilized. The pin and color scheme used in conventional and standard wire are described in the table below

Pin NoT 568 AT 568 B
ColorPin NameColorPin Name
1Green StripeRx+Orange StripeTx+
2GreenRx-OrangeTx-
3Orange StripeTx+Green StripeRx+
4BlueNot UsedBlueNot Used
5Blue StripeNot UsedBlue StripeNot Used
6OrangeTx-GreenRx-
7Brown StripeNot UsedBrown StripeNot Used
8BrownNot UsedBrownNot Used

What are the materials needed in creating network cable?

1. Unshielded twisted pair cable

                  The cabling system has one or more pairs of twisted insulated copper wires in a single sheath. It is the most common cabling system in data and telecommunications.

UTP Cable

2. Wire Stripper

                  A lightweight, portable instrument that is used by professionals, often electricians, to remove an electric wire’s protective covering before replacing or repairing the wire.

Wire Stripper

3. RJ 45- Registered jack

Rj45- Registered Jack

4. Crimping Tool

A tool for joining two pieces of metal together by deforming one or both of them so that they hold each other. A crimp is the name given to the tool’s finished product.

Crimping Tool

5. LAN Cable Tester

Signal cable or other wired assembly electrical connections are checked using an electronic instrument called a LAN cable tester.

Lan Cable Tester

Steps in making RJ 45 Cable

Step 1Purchase the required cable and RJ-45 connectors.

Since Ethernet cable is typically offered on loops of various lengths, you might have to calculate and cut the precise amount.

RJ45 Connector

To remove the outer jacket, use your cable strippers 1-2 inches from the cable’s end.

Step 2 – Cut off the outer skin

Make a shallow cut in the skin with a utility knife to remove 1 to 2 inches (2.5 to 5.1 cm) of the outer skin off the end of the cable wire.

Measuring cable

The jacket should just slide off the cable when you run the knife around it. There will be 4 exposed pairs of twisted wires, each of which will be a different color or combination of colors.

Four exposed wire

        

Step 3 – Reveal the Core

To reveal the cable core, fold the ends of each pair of wires backward.

Identifying Core

Step 4 – Removal of Core

Remove the core and throw it away.

Removal of core

Step 5 – Straighten the twisted wire

Use two pairs of tweezers to straighten the twisted wires. With one pair of tweezers, grasp the wire at the curve, and with the other pair, gently straighten the bent.

Straightening of Wire

Step 6 – Aligning of wire

Place the untwisted wires in a row in the direction they will enter the RJ-45 connector, moving from right to left.

Fixing wire

Step 7 – Sizing of Wire

To get the untwisted wires to the right length, hold the RJ-45 plug up against the cables.

         The RJ-45 plug’s bottom should be flush with the cable’s insulation. It’s important to cut the cables so they’re flush with the top of the RJ-45 plug.

Take your time when trimming the wires and keep checking for a snug fit. Cut the untwisted wires a few times rather than having to start over because you chopped off too much.

Sizing wire

Step 8 – Plug wire into the Connector

Make sure the wires are aligned and inserted into the RJ-45 connector’s separate channels according to their colors.

         Make ensure that each wire is threaded all the way to the very top of the RJ-45 connector. If you don’t make these checks, you will discover that your freshly crimped RJ-45 connector is unusable, and you will have wasted your time.

Inserting wire into connector

Step 9 – Crimp the connector to the cable

Using the crimping tool, force the jacket and cable into the RJ-45 connection so that the wedge at the bottom of the connector is driven into the jacket to crimp the connector to the cable.                        

         To make sure the connection is correct, recrimp the cable.

Crimping Tool

Step 10 – RJ 45 Cable

Crimping an RJ-45 connection onto the other end of the cable can be done by following the methods given above.

RJ Cable

Step 11 – Testing RJ45 Cable

Test the RJ45 cable with LAN tester to make sure the crimping has been done properly .

RJ Cable with tester

Name RJ connector available

  1. RJ11 Connector
  2. RJ11-W Connector
  3. RJ14 Connector
  4. RJ21 Connector
  5. RJ25 Connector
  6. RJ45 Connector
  7. RJ48 Connector
  8. RJ61 Connector

RJ Connectors types

1. RJ11 Connector

2. RJ11-W Connector

The RJ11- modular connector is standard form. It bridges telephone lines and provide wall mount functions

3. RJ14 Connector

The 6P4C modular connector is standard form.It is identical to an RJ11 connector but uses two telephone cable lines and can be used as a modem port in a computer.

4. RJ21 Connector

It supports 25 telephone lines with 50 conductors. It is mainly operated in large network. It operates many switches and devices in networks.

5. RJ25 Connector

         This connector is a standard connectors use modular connectors with six locations and six connections (6P6C). Modular plugs connect three telephone wire lines.

6. RJ45 Connector

7. RJ 48 Connector

         RJ48 is 8pin modular jacks & twisted wire cables for data transmission. Its pin out is different from RJ45 connector. 

         RJ48-S wall mount digital lines use 56 kbps. 

8. RJ61 Connector

Differences between RJ45 Connector and RJ11 Connector

ParametersRJ45RJ11
DesignRJ45 is designed with 8p8c connections (8 positions & 8 Contacts)RJ11 is designed with 8p8c connections (8 positions & 8 Contacts)
Bandwidth, Shape & SizeTransmitting of data’s speed rates up to 10Gps via Ethernet connection. RJ45 is rectangular shaped. The cable wire is large in diameterTransmitting of data’s speed rates up to 24Mps via Ethernet connection. RJ 11 is compact & square shaped. The cable wire is smaller in diameter.
WiresEight wires are linked togetherFour wires are linked together
ApplicationIt is used with Ethernet cables & telephone lines. Also used in Computer networking lineIt is used in telephone cable lines in single double or triple standard. Voice Application,  ADSL lines & Modem cables.  

Why RJ45 is used?

The RJ45 connector, is a  standard for connecting computers to LANs (LAN). This type of connector was initially developed for use with telephones but has now found widespread use beyond the realm of telephone talks.

Is RJ45 faster than Wi-Fi?

         Ethernet connections are more secure and reliable than wireless networks like (WiFi) and they also tend to be faster. Also RJ45 has high reliability &good security.

List some uses of RJ 45

  • Telephone and network cables typically have RJ-45 connections.
  • One common application is in serial network connections.
  • Computing devices with an active Internet connection

List few network topologies

  • Local Area Network
  • Wide Area Network

When a straight-through cable is used?

  • Linking a router to a hub
  • Linking a computer to a switch
  • Linking a local area network (LAN) port to a router, hub, or computer are all possible.

When a cross over cable is used?

  • Linking two similar networking devices, such as a hub and another hub.
  • Connecting two computers together; linking two switches together.

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