Electrical

ROOF-TOP SOLAR POWER

OVERVIEW OF THE ROOF-TOP SOLAR POWER:

Rooftop Solar System is a Photovoltaic System in which Photovoltaic Panels are implemented on a residential rooftop that generates electricity for residential needs and industrial needs.

PHOTOVOLTAIC – SOLAR CELLS CONVERT PHOTONS RECEIVED FROM HEAT ENERGY TO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
Various types of solar power plant
Solar Power Plants

COMPONENTS USED IN THE ROOF TOP POWER SOLAR:

Components used in Rooftop Solar System Installation are:

  • Solar Panel (or) Photovoltaic Modules
  • Roof Racking
  • Electrical Cables (or) Wiring System
  • Electrical Inverter
  • Battery
  • Net Meter (or) Energy Meter
  • SOLAR PANEL – Solar panel is the arrangement of a photovoltaic cell in a frame structure that absorbs solar energy and generates DC current.
  • ROOF RACKING – Roof racking is used to fix the solar panel or photovoltaic panel in the residential roof-top and mounted in an aligned direction to receive more solar energy.
  • ELECTRICAL CABLES (OR) WIRING SYSTEM – Electrical cables used for rooftop solar are depends on two factors:
  1. Distance Between the power photovoltaic panel and power load
  2. Power Demand requirement
  • ELECTRICAL INVERTER – Electrical Inverter is used to convert DC supply generated by Solar Panel into AC supply for needs.
  Direct Current (DC)  No Frequency
  Alternating Current (AC)  Constant Frequency
  • BATTERY – A battery is used to store electrical energy converted for usage during poor photovoltaic emission. But, the above method is possible for low load generation not for high load generation due to economical cost.
  • NET METER – Generally Energy meter is used to measure the electrical current consumed by the consumer. But, Solar energy Net-Meter is used to read the energy generated by solar and power consumed by the consumer.

NETMETER GENERATION + TOTAL POWER CONSUMED = NET USAGE

ONE-LINE REPRESENTATION OF ROOF-TO SOLAR POWER:

Working of Solar Power Plants
Flow Chart of Solar Power Plants

MERITS:

  • Solar Power generated on the roof-top is more sufficient for household needs even for heavy loads like air conditioning, refrigeration, etc.
  • Solar Power generated in the industries can compensate for a part of the need and also reduce tariff for consumed units.
  • It is possible to install anywhere like residential buildings, commercial complexes, industrial areas, and even in the ground pit as Solar Grid.
  • Roof-top Solar Power can conjunction with other generations like thermal, and wind turbine generation as continuous sources of power generation.
  • Solar Roof-Top can be implemented easily anywhere based on sq. meter area.

DE-MERITS:

  • Solar Power installation costs and maintenance are high when compared to the other mode of generation of electricity.
  • Solar Power excess generation is connected to the Distribution system but excess load generation causes reverse flow which affects the Distribution Transformer, Sub Station, and Feeders.
  • More Water resources are required in Solar Power Plant for removing dust accumulated in the Solar panel which drains groundwater.
  • Frequency Control, Power Factor probability is difficult to maintain when excess power generation than the capacity of the required generation.
  • Damage to solar panel replacement causes excessive cost.

TYPES OF ROOF TOP SOLAR POWER:

There are two types of roof-top solar systems that can be implemented:

  • On-Grid Roof-Top Solar Power
  • Off-Grid Roof-Top Solar Power

ON-GRID ROOF-TOP SOLAR POWER:

On-Grid Rooftop solar power is a system that can be easily connected to the Power Grid system with unlimited power generation.

On-Grid Rooftop solar power Diagram
On-Grid Rooftop solar power

OFF-GRID ROOF-TOP SOLAR POWER:

Off-Grid Rooftop solar power is a system that cannot be connected to the Power Grid system which is 100% self-sustain usage that is produced.

OFF-Grid Rooftop solar power Diagram
OFF-Grid Rooftop solar power Diagram

COMPARISON BETWEEN ON-GRID AND OFF-GRID SOLAR PLANTS

S.NOON-GRID ROOFTOP SOLAR POWEROFF-GRID ROOFTOP SOLAR POWER
1Battery Backup is not necessaryBattery Backup is necessary as a resource
2Excess power generated can be connected to the Grid systemSelf Sustained Energy resources depend of the Battery capacity
3Profitable cost can be obtained by supplying to the power gridNo profit cost can be obtained
4Not much expensive in installationExpensive in installation
5Charge Regulator is not requiredCharge Regulator is required

Since there are more difficulties faced in both on-grid and off-grid rooftop solar power systems, new technology has been developed called the “Hybrid Rooftop Solar Power System”.

HYBRID ROOFTOP SOLAR POWER:

Hybrid Roof-top solar power is the conjunction of both On and Off-grid roof-top solar systems.

  • Hybrid Roof-Top Solar Power System is the combination of both the solar and battery with the help of the charge controller connected to the power system.
  • In this system, the excess solar power can be easily connected to the power grid and can also be stored in the battery as backup energy.
  • When the grid-connected supply breakdown or get interruption the backup stored supply can be used for utility based on the battery capacity.
  • This Hybrid Roof-Top Solar Power System is more significant when compared to the On and Off-Grid Roof-top Solar System.
  • The lifetime of this system is long when compared to the other systems on the rooftop.
  • During a breakdown in the grid system, the energy stored in the battery supplies power to the equipment.
  • This system also faces energy frequency instability same as the other Rooftop solar power.

NECESSITY OF ROOF-TOP SOLAR POWER:

Solar energy is the most sustainable renewable energy resource used in nowadays practical life to avoid non-renewable energy resources, but the cost of installation and maintenance arises high to implement the above system. To save the other energy resources the above Roof-Top Solar Power is an essential one in day-to-day life.

Necessity of solar power system
Use of solar power system

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